ORIGIN.- There are several hypotheses to explain their origin. In the process of formation, lakes predecessors had, as the Mantaro 3950m.s.n.m., the Cabana 3900m.s.n.m. the Ballivián with 3860m.s.n.m., 3825m.s.n.m. the Minchin, and finally the current Tanca Titicaca 3810 m.s.n.m.
For the geological process of establishing the pit of the lake, the deepest point today around Stewart Island, inside which in turn is the highest mountain.
GEOGRAPHY.-Under his guidance N. S. NW SE, is outside the following coordinates 14 º 09'06 "-17 º 08'29" south latitude, 68 º 03'34 "-71 º 01'42" west longitude.
The lake is a natural basin surrounded by two mountain ranges, Oriental (Aricoma Carabaya and 6000 m, Apolobamba in Bolivia Real borders near the city of La Paz) West posing as an immense natural table in it (Highland) the Taypi Titicaca great place eternal fertility.
The name of the lake is lost in the meanings Aymara or Quechua puma cat gray stone.
- Perimeter 915 km
- Length across the Strait of Tiquina 178 Km
- Perpendicular There are 69 km wide and 41 km wide lake Minor, these measures are valid for the 3810 m.s.n.m. level which varies according to rainfall.
Greater Lake.- Biggest mystery area, where we have greater depth is 284 m. around Stewart Island, the surrounding area have depths greater than 200 m. probably inhabited by as many frogs in the world.
Minor Lake .- Is the less deep area called WIÑAYMARKA, populated by an archipelago of small islands, there technically is located Desaguadero River, a tributary of the lake.
Climate and temperature
In most of the year there is abundant sunshine from April to December, with low temperatures at night, from January to March is the rainy season.
The annual mean maximum temperature is 15 º C and 3.6 º C, minimum temperatures are no less than 1.8 º C around Lake Titicaca.
The lake has never temperatures below 8 ° C, achieving peak temperatures of 18 º C on the beaches of ccoto (Capachica Peninsula), Charcas (peninsula Chucuito), Taquile (south of the island) and others in the summer months (January, February and March).
Precipitation.- Rainfall is found in greater intensity in the middle of the lake to 1000mm reach, as is the trend away from the lake to reduce rainfall increases up to a minimum of 600 to 500 mm approximately in range area, place of snow increases from 800 to 1000mm.
Flora and Fauna.- BIRDS, LAKE VICUÑAS The reed is one of the plants of vital importance in the economy to the populations near the reeds and especially for residents of the Uros, used as fodder for cattle. The production of reeds (Schoenoplectus reed) varies between 1.5 and 0.2 g depending on their density, which is an estimate of the production of 120 tons per day of dry matter in the lower lake and 265 tons in the Bay of Puno.
The greatest diversity of wildlife is presented in the group of birds with over 70 species including resident and migratory aquatic habitat (the reeds) of which stress the "kele" or diver Titicaca, is one of the most endemic species representative. As for fish, aquatic ecosystems of the lake are home to native species in which gender has Orestias at Karachi (carachis) the most representative, and introduced species, the "trout and silversides Onkorynchus Basilichthys mikkis bonariensis ; There are also two species of amphibians, the "frog water" Telmatobius spp and "common toad" Bufo spinolosus.